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CANDIDIASIS (pathological leukorrhoea) The "ground" takes on here a great importance since they are boosted by the vaginal acidity, the excessive maceration of the perineum, antibiotic or estrogenic-progestin therapy, diabetes, pregnancy, etc. Source: Wikipedia, www.medix.fr, Dictionnaire médical Bilingue DORLAND, 28eme Ed. 2010.
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GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS (BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS) It is an imbalance of the vaginal flora at the expense of gardnerella vaginalis (GV) and various anaerobic germs. Frequent, common and generally without serious consequences, this condition is characterised by the spread of anaerobic germs and the reduced presence of the normal vaginal flora (bacillus of Döderlein). The term vaginosis expresses well the usual lack of vulvo-vaginal inflammation. Source: Wikipedia, www.medix.fr, Dictionnaire médical Bilingue DORLAND, 28eme Ed. 2010.
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HEPATIC METABOLISM A drug metabolism is the enzymatic transformation of the drug in one or several components, called metabolites, which can also be active as the original molecule, inactive until they are metabolised in an active drug in the body, or even toxic. The metabolism is one of the elimination phases of a drug: the various stages of the metabolism lead to the formation of water-soluble substances, most easily eliminated through aqueous media such as the urine, bile, saliva, etc. The drug metabolism is actually carried out in the liver, and also in the kidneys, lungs, intestines, etc.
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LEUCORRHOEA is a non-bloody, whitish, and viscous discharge from the vaginal cavity. It can be physiological (by a secretion of the cervical muscle and vaginal desquamation), or pathological that indicates an infection, most commonly a vaginitis, candidiasis or vaginitis. Physiologic leucorrhoea: The vagina naturally contains a physiologic leucorrhoea during the reproductive age period. The normal discharge is of about 2 ml per day, except during pregnancy. It comprises: plasma transudate; cervical mucus; vaginal epithelial cells with a high glycogen content; polymorphonuclear blood cells; an important microbial flora: bacillus of Döderlain that balances the pH; a small quantity of germs: Staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia; the vaginal environment is acidic since the bacillus of Döderlain produces lactic acid. The vaginal pH is 4.5. It is an ecosystem that is highly dependent on the hormonal activity. The leucorrhoea is a normal physiological phenomenon that indicates a good oestrogenic impregnation. Pathological leucorrhoea: VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS The "ground" takes on here a great importance since they are boosted by the vaginal acidity, the excessive maceration of the perineum, antibiotic or estrogenic-progestin therapy, diabetes, pregnancy, etc. GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS (BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS) It is an imbalance of the vaginal flora at the expense of gardnerella vaginalis (GV) and various anaerobic germs. Frequent, common and generally without serious consequences, this condition is characterised by the spread of anaerobic germs and the reduced presence of the normal vaginal flora (bacillus of Döderlein). The term vaginitis expresses well the usual lack of vulvo-vaginal inflammation. Source: Wikipedia, www.medix.fr, Dictionnaire médical Bilingue DORLAND, 28eme Ed. 2010.
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MÉTRORRHAGIA Genital bleeding occurring outside of the menstrual cycles. Metrorrhagia can occur in women after menopause or because of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. In this case, the foetus can develop in the tubes instead of the uterus and therefore cause the rupture of a blood vessel. Metrorrhagia can also be a sign of hemoperitoneum. This is considered a medical emergency. The term metrorrhagia does in no way mean the increase flow of the bleeding. Metrorrhagia should not be confused with menorrhagia that represents abnormally long and heavy menstrual flows. Source: Wikipedia
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PREBIOTICS Prebiotics are usually short-chain oligosaccharides or polysaccharides comprising approximately two to twenty sugar units. They are not digested in the small intestine and constitute potential substrates for hydrolysis and fermentation of intestinal bacteria. Prebiotics must act as selective substrate of one or a limited number of beneficial bacterial strains that live in the colon and stimulate their growth. Bifidobacteria and lactobacillus are the microorganisms of the intestinal microbiota (intestinal flora) most frequently concerned. Source: Wikipedia

ACTIVE PRINCIPLE Molecule entering in the composition of a drug, which gives it its therapeutic properties. A drug contains one or several active principles incorporated into a single excipient. Source: www.santepratique.fr

PROBIOTICS Probiotics are living microorganisms (bacteria or yeasts), that are added as supplements due to their health benefits to the hose. Source: Wikipedia

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SPOTTING Spot : "small mark". It is a gynaecological term that indicates a consistent loss of blood, in small amounts, outside of the menstrual cycle. The most common type of such bleeding is sometimes noticed during the administration of the contraceptive pill, which translates into a hormonal imbalance that may require the change of the contraception method. Source: Wikipedia
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TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME : What is the toxic shock syndrome? The toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare disease, often very serious, that occurs suddenly, after an infection. The TSS can rapidly affect other organs, including the liver, the lungs and the kidneys. Due to the rapid progression of the TSS, medical assistance needs to be sought as soon as possible. What are the causes of the TSS? TSS occurs due to an infection caused by a bacteria. There are two types of bacteria producing toxins that could cause the TSS - the first is the Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and the second is the group A streptococcus. The group A streptococcus bacteria is associated to the necrotising fasciitis, or the flash-eating disease. For more information, please see the HealthLink BC File [health card of the C.-B.] no. 60 The necrositing fasciitis. This health card describes the TSS in relation to the infection caused by the Staphylococcus aureus (SA). What is the Staphylococcus aureus (SA)? The staphylococcal bacteria are present in the nose and/or on the skin of more than 30 percent of healthy persons. Fortunately, these bacteria are not usually dangerous and only cause mild infections of the throat or skin. The staphylococcal bacteria produce toxins that only affect some people. In rare cases, the persons who have not developed antibodies against these toxins may have an acute allergic reaction when these bacteria enter their bloodstream. The result is the toxic shock syndrome. What are the symptoms of the TSS? The early symptoms of the TSS are similar to those of the influenza virus (the flu), they develop quickly, and they are very serious. These symptoms may include: pain at the site of infection, vomiting, diarrhoea, symptoms of shock, including arterial hypotension, dizziness, headaches, shortness of breath, and burns similar to those caused by the sun. These symptoms usually develop within 3 to 5 days on menstruating women using tampons. In general, the TSS symptoms may develop within 12 hours after a surgical operation. Who is at risk? The TSS, caused by the staphylococcal bacterial infection, can affect everybody. However, most of the affected persons are young people, men and women aged 20 to 40, who have never developed specific antibodies. Although menstruating women using tampons are at a higher risk of contracting the TSS, the tampons do not cause the TSS. The TSS risk factors comprise the following: history of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; an extended usage of tampons, in particular of the super absorbent type; the use of sponges, diaphragms or intrauterine devices (IUD); irritation and inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis); a skin wound, including a surgical wound, for example during an operation on the nose; the persons developing a staphylococcal wound infection after surgery are more at risk to end up with the TSS; recent respiratory infections, such as sinusitis, sore throat (pharyngitis), laryngitis, angina or pneumonia. What do I need to do if I believe I have a TSS? If you believe you have TSS, you should consult a doctor immediately. If this is not possible, you should go to the nearest available emergency department. If you have any one of the TSS symptoms during the use of a tampon, remove it and seek medical attention immediately. Tell your healthcare provider that you were wearing a tampon at the onset of the symptoms. What is the correct treatment of the TSS? TSS caused by a staphylococcal bacterial infection is serious. However, if correctly identified and treated, it is deadly only in 3 to 6 percentage of the cases. TSS cannot be treated at home. Hospitalisation is required to treat TSS infections and other complications associated to the TSS, such as concussions. Antibiotics are administered to eliminate the bacteria. If the source of infection is related to the use of a tampon, a diaphragm or a contraceptive sponge, they must be removed as soon as possible. Can a TSS be avoided? The TSS caused by an infection and not related to the use of a tampon can be avoided by keeping all wounds clean, including surgical wounds, cuts, scratches, burns, irritations, inspect bites, or animal bites. The TSS associated to the use of tampons, diaphragms or contraceptive sponges can be avoided. Follow the instructions provided in the box if you use tampons, diaphragms or contraceptive sponges. Wash your hands with soap before inserting or removing a tampon, a diaphragm or a contraceptive sponge. Change your tampon at least once every 8 hours or just use tampons only during one part of the day. Do not continuously use your diaphragm or contraceptive sponge inserted for more than 12 to 18 hours. Use both tampons and sanitary napkins. For example, use sanitary napkins during the night and tampons during the day. Use tampons with the lowest absorbency capacity, according to your needs. The TSS risk is higher when using super absorbent tampons. Source: Health Canada www.sc-hc.gc.ca
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VAGINAL ECOSYSTEM : The vagina is a dynamic ecosystem where each woman has 8 to 10 germs. The dominant flora is the Döderlein bacilli: lactobacilli covering the vaginal mucosa. It transforms the glycogen contained in the vaginal and cervical cells thanks to the oestrogenic impregnation with lactic acid. This lactic acid is the reason why the vagina pH is acidic, that has the role to protect against microbial outbreaks. This balanced aero-anaerobic flora actually protects against the attachment and colonisation of pathogenic germs in the vagina. Source: Wikipedia

VAGINAL FLORA / ECOSYSTEM : The vaginal ecosystem. The vagina is a dynamic ecosystem where each woman has 8 to 10 germs. The dominant flora is the Döderlein bacilli: lactobacilli covering the vaginal mucosa. It transforms the glycogen contained in the vaginal and cervical cells thanks to the oestrogenic impregnation with lactic acid. This lactic acid is the reason why the vagina pH is acidic, that has the role to protect against microbial outbreaks. This balanced aero-anaerobic flora actually protects against the attachment and colonisation of pathogenic germs in the vagina. Source: Wikipedia

VAGINAL MYCOSES : The vaginal mycoses, also called vaginal candidiasis, represent infections caused by yeast, most commonly by the yeast Candida albicans, in the genital area. This causes the inflammation of the vagina. The vaginal mycoses can also affect the labia minora and the labia majora that are external genital organs. It is not a disease caused by the lack of hygiene, but by the disruption of the natural vaginal flora, that can be caused by several factors. Vaginal mycoses affects a high number of women, meaning that close to 75% of the women suffer from vaginal mycoses at least once in their life. Given that vaginal mycoses are caused by yeasts (generally by the yeast Candida albicans), some factors can favour the excess growth of this yeast (Candida albicans is always present in the vaginal area but in a small quantity), such as: hormonal variations (menstrual cycle), pregnancy (often during the third trimester), diabetes, medication (antibiotics), thyroid disease, stress, contraceptive pill, bad local hygiene, for example when you use the bathroom, you should clean the genital area from the front to the back (from the vagina towards the anus) to avoid the contamination of the vagina with yeasts from the intestines, an excessive hygiene of the genital area, undergarments that are too tight or that are made out of synthetic materials, age (elderly subjects are more likely to suffer from vaginal mycoses), an infection in another area of the body (the immune systems "works" too hard and mycoses can develop more easily). The first symptom of the vaginal mycoses (vaginal candidiasis) is itching. Sensations of burning, pain and white and often odourless discharges are also present. A certain redness on the genital area and pain in the vagina are also possible. In a nutshell, there are 3 typical symptoms of the vaginal mycoses: 1. intense itching or burning sensations; 2. vaginal discharges (whitish and grainy); 3. redness (swelling). Please note that the pains caused by vaginal mycoses can be increased by miction or sexual intercourse. Please be aware, itching or pains in the vagina area are not necessarily symptoms of vaginal mycoses, quite the contrary, they can be symptoms of other diseases: bacterial infections, genital herpes, allergy, etc. Please see your doctor for a precise diagnostic and the best treatment for your disease of infection. Source: http://www.creapharma.ch

VAGINITIS : Vaginitis is the inflammation of the vulva, of the vagina, or of both, or an abnormal discharge not related to a cervicitis. Contrary to common belief, the vaginitis is rarely caused by a sexually transmitted infection. The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the only sexually transmitted agent known to cause a vulvo-vaginitis, representing only 5% of the vaginitis causes. Regular consultations for this pathology are an important step in the evaluation of women at risk of developing a sexually transmitted infection. Source: Wikipedia, www.medix.fr, Dictionnaire médical Bilingue DORLAND, 28eme Ed. 2010.

 

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